Terms

Advocacy
- is an umbrella term for organized activism or lobbying related to a particular set of issues, in the case of FAS, gender equality.

Arria Formula
- allows for informal meetings to be held outside the official chambers of the UN Security Council. Before the Arria Formula was first implemented in March 1992, only delegations, senior government officials (of Security Council members) and UN officials could speak at the regular Security Council meetings and UN consultations. The Arria Formula was named after Ambassador Diego Arria of Venezuela, who first devised the practice. Although there continues to be much debate over who should be allowed access to these meetings, since 2000 certain NGOs and UN member states have been allowed to participate.

Best practice
- is a management concept which asserts that there is a method or activity that is more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other. The testing of the method, perhaps in one country, will allow other countries to use the same technique. Best practice does not denote one inflexible, unchanging practice, but is subject to continual improvement.

Capacity building
- is the assistance which is provided to the governments of developing countries, organizations and people, which need to develop certain skills or competencies or which need to create appropriate policies and institutions in order to function effectively. Capacity building is a long-term process; the transfer of this knowledge must be done in a manner which will ensure its longevity and sustainability.

Conflict
- is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence. Conflict, broadly understood, is part of human nature and can be a positive source of growth if addressed and dealt with constructively. However, when conflict turns violent it becomes a negative force that threatens the potential for human development.

Cycle of conflict
- refers to the various stages of conflict. It is important to understand that "peace" and "conflict" are not static concepts, but rather processes that evolve over time. Each stage of a conflict requires different approaches and mechanisms at the international, regional, national and local levels.
Phases of conflict:
1. Prevention
This stage relies on mechanisms of early warning and risk analysis.
Education and community-building initiatives aim to promote a culture of peace.
Non-violent mechanisms of conflict resolution are used.
2. Escalation
This describes the intensification of a conflict to a more destructive or confrontational level.
3. Management
Once conflict escalates, concern for human security and the protection of civilians becomes central to a conflict management strategy.
This includes responding to the needs of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), the majority of whom are usually women and children.
4. Conflict resolution and negotiations
These can be defined as confidence-building measures, negotiations and peace talks, as well as grassroots efforts, which aim to reach a peaceful settlement.
5. Post-conflict reconstruction
This stage is part of the long-term effort to maintain peace following a settlement and incorporates the process of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR).
Conflict prevention becomes a vital part of the process, as reconstruction must also include sustainable development projects that promote economic empowerment and rebuild the war-torn fabric of society.

Equality
- suggests equal access to resources and opportunities and equal participation in all realms of society for women and men, but also for members of different races, ethnic groups and religions.

Equity
- is the practice of allocating resources which result in equality.

Gender
- refers to the different roles and responsibilities attributed to men and women in society. It does not only mean the biological definition of sex as male and female, but also how these biological definitions are constructed in a social context, subject to historical and cultural change. During conflict, women and men may have different roles, concerns and priorities.

Gender-based violence
- according to the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the term gender-based violence (GBV) is used to distinguish violence that targets individuals or groups of individuals on the basis of their gender from other forms of violence. It includes any act which results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm. GBV includes violent acts such as rape, torture, mutilation, sexual slavery, forced impregnation and murder. It also defines threats of these acts as a form of violence.

Gender mainstreaming
- is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation or programmes. It is a strategy for making women's, as well as men's, concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the implementation and monitoring of policies in all political, economic and social spheres. The immediate aim is to ensure that women and men benefit equally from such policies, and inequality is not perpetuated.

Grassroots
- is any activity driven by the constituents of a community, as opposed to being organized by central power structures.

Human security
- this concept transcends traditional military-centred notions of security to include a concern for the welfare of vulnerable groups in society, particularly women and children.

Justice
- refers to the development of a system of laws and procedures that do not discriminate against any members of society. It also includes the responsibility of the government to apply the law fairly without discrimination or favouritism and of members of society to respect the rule of law.

Mechanism
- is a set of rules or procedures designed to bring about a certain outcome through the interaction of a number of agents.

Member states
- are countries that are members of an international or regional organization. In the case of the United Nations, member states are represented in the General Assembly.

Micro-finance and micro-credit
- are small loans to individuals who lack collateral, steady employment and a verifiable credit history and therefore cannot meet even the minimum criteria required to gain access to traditional credit. This method originated in developing countries, where it has been of particular help to women, allowing them to engage in self-employment projects that generate an income.

NGO
- is a non-governmental organization and, in its broadest sense, is one that is not directly part of the structure of government. NGOs have developed to emphasize and promote humanitarian issues, development aid and sustainable development.

Peace
- can be positive or negative. When we talk about negative peace, it refers simply to the absence of war. In this context, peace is unlikely to last unless further steps are taken to prevent the resurgence of violence. Positive peace is not just the absence of conflict but rather the presence of mechanisms that allow people to resolve conflicts using non-violent means.

Pre-summit consultative meetings
- are conferences held by civil society networks involved in promoting the cause of women in Africa. They are organized alongside summits of the African Union.

UN resolutions
- are formal texts adopted by a UN body. Any UN body can adopt resolutions, although in reality most resolutions emanate from the Security Council or the General Assembly. The legal status of UN resolutions has been a matter of intense debate. Many experts consider most General Assembly resolutions to be non-binding "recommendations", while Security Council resolutions are considered to be legally binding. There have also been difficulties defining what these resolutions can address.

Working groups
- are established by decision-makers at higher levels of organizations to elaborate, consolidate and build on the consensus of the decision-makers. They work to clarify issues, formulate strategies and develop action plans.