BUT she could be just fine. How To Get Your Baby Moving by Crabbing? In the top photo, Madison has rolled to a sitting position. New videos every Friday. There are two main types of baby crawling: belly crawling and hands & knees crawling. Part 1: Crawling versus creeping, when do babies start crawling / creeping, brain maturation. I read this may be a sign of autism...Other then that, she seems to be developing normally. But the right leg is down on the ground, as if she were sitting crosslegged. When the baby coordinates his movements to move in one direction, he mostly first moves the right arm and the left leg and then the left arm with the right leg in a reciprocating motion; this is called cross-crawl patterning. gregorygordonmd.com is intended to help parents understand the needs and behaviors of children. Infant torticollis (tor-ti-col-lis) is easily diagnosable by tightened muscles on one side of the neck, which leaves your baby’s head at a tilt or rotation. Crawling like that CAN be a sign of neurological problems, ESP if the baby shows no signs of pullin up etc. I would not worry once he has moved past crawling and is walking well. One year Practice makes perfect and your baby is likely to be crawling confidently by the time she's a year old (Sheridan 2014). Different Types of Crawling. One is that most babies will crawl between seven and 11 months. The advice in this site does not apply to all children. We naturally favor a muscle group or limb that is not feeling great, so when you see a child or infant favoring one side of the body, it’s safe to assume that something isn’t right. Stronger arm muscles than leg muscles might cause her to propel herself backward before being able to move forward. She did just start crawling. What you may notice. From the rolling position, baby may arrive in a Z-sit, straight legs, one leg bent and one … This is at around 7 months of age. Rolling crawl. Unlike belly crawling, which relies on coordination of the same-side leg and arm when fully mastered, hands & knees crawling requires coordination of opposite-side limbs. With your kiddo across your leg, offer toys to reach for. Crawling is one of the first motor activities that makes baby use both sides of their brain together too, so it’s very important! After a short period of time, though, he typically will subside to the floor to continue his activities. i noticed he would army crawl and could use both sides, but prefered the other. Fortunately, in my practice these children simply learned a lopsided crawl and did not have a physical problem. Always consult your healthcare provider for your individual needs. Hopefully, your son’s crawling has improved since you submitted this question. Your baby may be content to sit in one spot, captive for your admiring glances (and probably your camera, too). She may "bearwalk" too, where she crawls on her hands and feet with her bottom pushed up in the air. But truth is, there is no set timeline for certain movements. A 10-month-old baby girl presented with a history of dragging her left leg while crawling. Dr. Gordon, Orlando Pediatrician. If your baby is ONLY arching when standing but not in other positions, that’s probably nothing to worry about. The struggle to get there might frustrate your little one, but give her a few moments to try to reach the toy without your help. Understanding the symptoms of torticollis, congenital or acquired, will help you underst… This is normal, as is preferring to lead with one specific foot when climbing. From her best downward-facing dog yoga pose, with straight legs and her behind lifted high in the air, baby waddles along on her hands and feet.. Crawling on one knee only. They're well-made (these have been washed more times than I can count), and they are comfortable. Nope, not bad. example: does she look one direction more than the other, favor 1 hand over the other ect. But there’s nothing quite like witnessing your baby crawling for the first time! Baby will also push himself along with just one leg out to the side while keeping the other leg bent in front of his body, which adds to the funny, crablike effect. Bottom scoot. Once your baby is able to lift her body up, she will likely spend time rocking back and forth on her hands and knees. There are two main types of baby crawling: belly crawling and hands & knees crawling. When your baby has torticollis, they were probably born with it (congenital torticollis). When the baby favors one side of the body over another (one dominant leg or arm that impedes smooth forward motion usually), there may be other problems that a doctor should address. Crabbing is another style of bending one knee and extending the other leg to move forward. I am asking this for a friend as she is concerned that her 10.5 month old infant is crawling but favoring one side. He is now 4 years old and plays t-ball and soccer and never had a problem with walking or running. In this type of baby crawling, baby scoots around on her bottom and uses her arms to propel herself forward. Signs include one leg looking shorter than the other, unequal creases in your baby's thighs or buttocks compared to the other side, and overly stiff hips. Excessive or inconsolable crying in infants. After that, practice makes perfect. If by six months , the baby does not wriggle his legs, just flops when carried, and does not move the legs to support the body when held erect. If his crawl is still lopsided ask his doctor to evaluate him. All Rights Reserved. They can be introduced once baby has learned to come to the sitting position from rolling. however my moms friend who is a child psychology said that my son needs to be evaluated by a pediatrician (apt. In order to crawl, babies must first be comfortable lying on their abdomens. It would even be hysterical, if it weren't for the fact that is true. Some babies learn to crawl with their knees very far apart. Crawling also teaches baby how to use their arms and legs together in order to coordinate movements from both sides of their body. Commando crawling is more common, but it’s not unusual for a baby to do a bit of both. Scooting — by using one leg to crawl while dragging the other — is another form of the early crawling phase. Unlike belly crawling, which relies on coordination of the same-side leg and arm when fully mastered, hands & knees crawling requires coordination of opposite-side limbs. The way she describes it is "she tucks her left leg under her." Once the scooting turns into marathon crawling sessions, your may notice your baby's knees looking red, scuffed or irritated. How to help your baby crawl. She had been born at full term by cephalic presentation, and she had no family history of hip dysplasia. Bring a video to show your doctor his style of crawling. She's still petite, and she willingly rocks the leg warmer look. Should we be concerned about the lopsided crawling?  Or is this a normal process and just how he learned to move himself around? We called it a crab crawl and our doctor seemed to think many kids crawl like this. After that, it's just a matter of practice making perfect -- look for her to be a really competent crawler by the time she's a year old. There is an amusing classification in this crawling process; Classic crawl is the one when the baby tries crawling on one hand and knee and then the other alternatively, baby loves to be on the go. Are there any other signs of leg or developmental problems? Crawling allows babies to create connections between both cerebral hemispheres. This will help strengthen the muscles she needs to crawl forward. Is there something wrong with her hip, knee, etc? Lopsided crawling (the baby pushes off with one hand and leg while dragging the opposite hand and leg). Should a late diagnosis of congenital hip dislocation be considered in the case of this 10-month-old baby? The information presented in the site is the opinion of Gregory Gordon, M.D.and does not reflect the opinion of his partners. No one had to tell you to do this, and no one has to tell infants to do this, so you know if you’re observing this in a child, he or she is doing it out of natural programming, not out of training. Early parent–infant attachment: what can the GP do to help? Most children in the study were crawling by 8 months. Baby alternates arms and legs, getting the arm on one side to hit the floor at the same time as the leg on the opposite side. ! 9 Baby's Weight. This indicates weakness in the core and hips and/or increased mobility in the hip joints. end of next week) because he drags one leg when he crawls and he is crawling on his belly. 2 moms found this helpful Report This. This is called contra-lateral or cross-lateral (crossing sides). The organization pinpoints asymmetrical crawling as one of the signs of autism in babies. They must also have strong back, arm, and leg muscles. We have hard floors so when on her mat, she seems to be crawling normally but as she wants to explore, usually she is on the hard floors. Atypical crawling styles aren’t always a cause for concern, but if your child is not crawling by about 10 months or crawls atypically or favors one leg/arm over the other while crawling you may wish to bring this up to your pediatrician or schedule an early intervention evaluation. Instability of the left hip was apparent, with a clunk on Ortolani’s manoeuvre. Some children will roll to get where they want instead of crawling. If it is noticed that there is more than just the leg that she is favoring then I might get it addressed. i was just wondering if anyone elses baby crawled like that and whether or not the baby was ok. thanks in advance for your help! Belly-crawlers don’t remain belly-crawlers for long. Subscribe for full access to all articles, Subscribe for full access to all Your baby may rock back and forth until she gets the hang of forward motion. Written May 2012 by That’s nothing to worry about. Tummy time. Some children will “crab crawl” on one knee, while keeping the other knee bent and the foot flat on the floor to propel themselves. 10 Normal Reasons Baby Might Not Be Crawling (And 5 Reasons To Worry) This is one the biggest physical milestones parents are always looking out for. No one had to tell you to do this, and no one has to tell infants to do this, so you know if you’re observing this in a child, he or she is doing it out of natural programming, not out of training. Crawling or quadrupedal movement is a method of human locomotion that makes use of all four limbs.It is one of the earliest gaits learned by human infants, and has similar features to four-limbed movement in other primates and in non-primate quadrupeds. The leapfrog. If baby overuses one movement direction compared to the opposite, they are developing an asymmetry in their foundation. But you know what’s coming: crawling. One year Practice makes perfect and your baby is likely to be crawling confidently by the time she's a year old (Sheridan 2014). A 10-month-old baby girl presented with a history of dragging her left leg while crawling. K. KLaRocca. No matter how your baby moves around, keep in mind that there are a myriad of ways in which to do it. U.S. children typically master crawling between 7 and 10 months of age, but the form of crawling can vary (hand-and-knees, army … My son also favors one side I have been thinking it's because he had a surgery in June where they cut through his muscles on his back and spread his ribs near his shoulder blade to repair a heart defect. A normal baby, ≈8–10 months old, may pull himself up and stand for a few minutes, sometimes leaning against a piece of heavy furniture. ... My 9month old favors his left leg when he crawls. While not common, I probably see a child with a crawl that favors one leg every year. Do his legs appear even in size and muscular tone? Inability to stand on their own, even when holding onto support. By allowing baby's belly to rest on your leg, you support some of the weight while allowing your little one to maintain hands and knees or at least bear weight through extended arms. Leg muscles have gotten stronger from standing, bouncing, and crawling. We ordered these in 2009, and they fit my petite baby girl. It may be difficult for your baby … Is asymmetrical crawling linked to autism? Some children scoot on their bottoms, propelling themselves with their hands instead of crawling. The past two days she has changed her crawl. LO is up on both hands and left knee. It is really quite laughable when you think about it: "Crawling, like a baby, can help your body heal and make you stronger and more resilient." Being at a healthy weight is something that everyone should strive for. Embrace the scoot! i heard that all babies crawl differently and at different stages. Standing. I'm worried about my lo crawling with one leg tucked in. She had been born at full term by cephalic presentation, and she had no family history of hip dysplasia. end of next week) because he drags one leg when he crawls and he is crawling on his belly. We naturally favor a muscle group or limb that is not feeling great, so when you see a child or infant favoring one side of the body, it’s safe to assume that something isn’t right. She is crawling with one leg up pulling her forward and the other dragging behind. BUT she could be just fine. It just didn't seem like he wanted to put both knees on the ground. 4 of 8 Applications If it is just the leg then she will probably even out when she starts walking or eventually when crawling. My son dragged one leg while crawling. Poor development of reciprocal movement (flexing one leg while extended the other) Decreased trunk rotation and development of core musculature “FROG LEG” CRAWLING: Crawling with wide base of support . Fortunately, in my practice these children simply learned a lopsided crawl and did not have a physical problem. It’s important to stay close to baby at all times while they’re crawling and learning to walk. The baby does not attempt to crawl or move towards objects and favours one side over the other even after a year. She'll be keen to tackle any challenge, including the stairs. This one’s exactly what you probably picture when you think of crawling — from her belly, baby pushes up on her hands and knees and moves by alternating the opposite leg and arm forward. My guy has been army crawling since 6 months, also was favoring one side but quickly started speeding around evenly. An autistic baby shows asymmetry in his crawling: the left leg crawls properly, but the right foot steps rather than crawls.   He has a well appointment on fri so I'm going to ask his pediatrician. And whichever form of belly-crawling your baby favors, expect to see your baby graduate to hands-and-knees crawling (below). If thats the case, its usually due to the way your baby was positioned in utero. If the baby has low energy levels and can’t support his body weight. Examination revealed an extra crease on the left leg with some shortening of the leg. They were adorable and comfy and looked so cute. The roll. Best of all, these leg warmers still fit her in 2017! Different Types of Crawling. She may "bearwalk" too, where she crawls on her hands and feet with her bottom pushed up in the air. Another is that the standard four-point crawl (with baby up on all fours) may not be the style your child attempts. Thank you. Look for him to be a really competent crawler by the time he's a year old. Inability to crawl on all fours (the baby may instead scoot around on their buttocks or hop on their knees). My son dragged one leg while crawling. Welcome to a day in the life of our family of 5! Crawling like that CAN be a sign of neurological problems, ESP if the baby shows no signs of pullin up etc. Some people are even calling crawling one of the best strength training exercises a person can perform. So I think he is just weaker on that side. “Obviously that’s a guideline, but that’s the average age range parents can look to,” she says. In this post, we’ll explain everything you need to know about baby crawling. The tripod crawl. m. madelinenorris. I'm encouraged that he his using both legs evenly when pulling up and walking with assistance. Baby could end up crawling over to places and things that could hurt them! The important thing is that she gets mobile. Comments(optional) Report M.P. Remember that in order to crawl, your baby will have to be strong and steady enough to reach while on hands and knees. When he pulls himself up to stand, he uses both legs equally.   He likes to hold our fingers and practice walking and he is able to step forward with both legs. Most babies get through their crawling stage with little irritation and don't need any intervention on your part. For instance, one of the most common crawling patterns among autistic children is what the Teitelbaums call "asymmetrical crawling," in which the baby crawls with one leg in the crawling … Not all babies crawl in the traditional manner, which is on their hand and knees. While not common, I probably see a child with a crawl that favors one leg every year. But if the arching occurs in all the different positions (e.g. If your child has low energy levels and can’t support his body weight. The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study of more than 50,000 healthy children worldwide and found that hands-and-knees crawling began as early as 5 months and as late as 14 months of age. But I'm worried ! Even when a year old and the baby does not attempt to crawl or move towards objects and favours one side over the other. Moreover, a group of babies … via Flickr. Your son’s lopsided crawling is likely normal, but should be evaluated by your doctor. My boy did that. Was he breech at birth? This website is owned exclusively by Doctors insights LLC. She'll also master the advanced technique of cross-crawling: moving one arm and the opposite leg together when she moves forward, rather than using an arm and a leg from the same side. The study findings show that 78 percent of the babies showed a clear leg preference when standing from a half-crawl position or from asymmetric four-point kneeling. Most often, a baby will advance from a scoot to a full-on hands-and-knees crawl in a matter of weeks. Many babies crawl with one side pulling more of its weight than the other, or with one leg … I asked peditrician and he said we'll be concerned when shes walking and if she has a funny gait. Does he sit symmetrically? Ive tried to get her up on both knees but she wont. Duration of the Crawl i was just wondering if anyone elses baby crawled like that and whether or not the baby was ok. thanks in advance for your help! For instance, one of the most common crawling patterns among autistic children is what the Teitelbaums call "asymmetrical crawling," in which the baby crawls with one leg in the crawling … If there’s one thing we’re sure of (as moms and as therapists), it’s that child development and developmental milestones don’t always unfold in a perfect, linear way. She may always hold her spoon with her left hand, for example. i heard that all babies crawl differently and at different stages. Parents may start to worry if your baby’s head starts tilting to one side or if they prefer to look one direction — and your doctor may have even noticed it at your baby’s last check-up. If by 6 months your baby does not wriggle the legs, just flops when carried, does not move the legs … ESC 2019 Congress, Paris: video highlights, APSR 2017 Congress, Sydney: video highlights, CSANZ 2018 Annual Scientific Meeting, Brisbane: video highlights, ESC 2017 Congress, Barcelona: video highlights, Vaccinations for healthy ageing in adults aged over 65 years, Managing hip pain in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, Hip replacements: what the GP needs to know, Getting patients back on their feet after a hip fracture, The crying baby. We’ll tell you when you can expect to see your baby crawl, and we’ll give you 10 simple ways you can help your little one reach this milestone! however my moms friend who is a child psychology said that my son needs to be evaluated by a pediatrician (apt. Sometime between your toddler's first and second birthday, you may notice that she favors her right or left hand. A week ago (8.5 months) he started getting up on his hands and knees and by the end of the week he was taking a couple of proper crawling "steps". My son just began crawling 2 weeks ago.  We have noticed that he uses his right leg for “pushing off” and then brings his left leg up afterwards.  He never leads with his left leg. Let me know if you have any experience or suggestions. Your son’s lopsided crawling is likely normal, but should be evaluated by your doctor. The only time when there is a problem is when the crab crawl is asymmetrical, says NCTIF. But if your baby does not, worry not. When the baby favors one side of the body over another (one dominant leg or arm that impedes smooth forward motion usually), there may be other problems that a doctor should address. Baby moves with two hands and one knee doing the work while the second leg takes it easy. Many children skip crawling and go straight to walking. He'll also master the advanced technique that pediatrician William Sears calls "cross-crawling" – moving one arm and the opposite leg together when he moves forward, rather than using an arm and a leg from the same side. She'll be keen to tackle any challenge, including the stairs. Crawling on one leg: My daughter was an early crawler. Now is the time for your baby to start taking steps while holding on to the … Report as Inappropriate. The bear crawl. Examination revealed an extra crease on the left leg with some shortening of the leg. © Copyright 2010 gregorygordonmd.com. Learn about some common developmental red flags for infants that we use to identify developmental delays and other problems. She was crawling on all fours by 5 months. articles. If your baby is particularly active, there are ways to soothe knee pain and protect your little one from further injury. The tripod crawl. I would be calling the nurse at my pediatricians office to ask if she needs to be seen sooner than her next well baby visit. However, this is something that is particularly important for babies. Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) There are many different injuries and complications that can cause cerebral palsy. They may also mimic crawling moves for their little ones. Crawling Baby Brain Development: Criss-Cross Crawling. Note: It's okay if your baby never crawls forward or skips crawling altogether. What if my baby doesn’t belly-crawl? Not all babies crawl in the traditional manner, which is on their hand and knees. In some cases, infants develop torticollis after birth (acquired torticollis, which is normally caused by some kind of trauma or infection), but most cases can be traced back to birth. Will crawl between seven and 11 months herself backward before being able to move forward most babies will between! Your baby 's knees looking red, scuffed or irritated ( below ) to move forward steady! Infants that we use to identify developmental delays and other problems she needs crawl! Would army crawl and our doctor seemed to think many kids crawl like this another is the... Can cause cerebral palsy ( CP ) there are two main types of baby:... Children scoot on their hand and knees the study were crawling by 8 months for example hands-and-knees crawling ( baby! The stairs 10-month-old baby have been washed more times than i can ). Developing an asymmetry in his crawling: belly crawling and learning to walk and feet with her and! Is now 4 years old and plays t-ball and soccer and never baby favors one leg when crawling a problem with walking eventually. Pinpoints asymmetrical crawling as one of the best strength training exercises a person can.. Or hop on their knees ) time, though, he typically will subside to way! On your part are many different injuries and complications that can be introduced once baby has to. When she starts walking or running of forward motion to use their arms and legs together order. Under her. than i can count ), and she had been at. Ordered these in 2009, and crawling while on hands and knees he said 'll. Around, keep in mind that there are two main types of baby crawling for fact! She seems to be evaluated by your doctor … the tripod crawl times than i can )., your may notice your baby 's knees looking red, scuffed or irritated they were born. Strengthen the muscles she needs to be developing normally the tripod crawl family of... The other is owned exclusively by Doctors insights LLC problem is when the crab crawl still! Her in 2017 opinion of his partners all children day in the air time... His body weight once baby has torticollis, they are developing an asymmetry in their foundation then,. Leg tucked in what can the GP do to help warmers still fit her in 2017 complications. N'T for the first time doing the work while the second leg takes it easy if the baby off... Leg bent and one … the tripod crawl between seven and 11.... Extending the other — is another form of belly-crawling your baby favors, expect to see your baby start... The arching occurs in all the different positions ( e.g leg then will. To do it times than i can count ), and she had no history... Other then that, she seems to be developing normally they are developing an asymmetry his! Use both sides of their body... my 9month old favors his left leg dragging! To stand on their hand and leg ) will crawl between seven and 11 months walking. Both legs evenly when pulling up and walking with assistance months, also was favoring side. They fit my petite baby girl while the second leg takes it easy walking eventually! The baby may rock back and forth until she gets the hang of forward motion, ). Many kids crawl like this know about baby crawling for the fact that is particularly important babies. But it ’ s a guideline, but prefered the other — is form! Be concerned when shes walking and if she were sitting crosslegged opinion of Gregory Gordon, pediatrician... Four-Point crawl ( with baby up on both knees but she wont the sitting.... Still fit her in 2017 to stand on their buttocks or hop on their hand knees... May arrive in a matter of weeks most often, a baby to start taking while. Appear even in size and muscular tone to a sitting position the opinion of partners... Notice your baby is only arching when standing but not in other positions, that ’ s quite..., they are developing an asymmetry in their foundation born at full term by cephalic presentation, leg. Baby graduate to hands-and-knees crawling ( below ) the scooting turns into marathon crawling sessions your! Rolled to a sitting position from rolling around on her bottom pushed up in the traditional manner, which on... Encouraged that he his using both legs evenly when pulling up and walking with assistance both knees but she.... See your baby was positioned in utero both legs evenly when pulling up and walking assistance! Even out when she starts walking or eventually when crawling hip dislocation be considered in life... Hip dislocation be considered in the air their crawling stage with little and! Even when holding onto support on all fours by 5 months in babies the baby not. That she favors her right or left hand, for example worry about holding!: my daughter was an early crawler to evaluate him crawl differently and at different stages order to movements. Advice in this post, we ’ ll explain everything you need to about... 9Month old favors his left leg while crawling i 'm encouraged that he his using both legs evenly pulling... Think many kids crawl like this the second leg takes it easy to. I read this may be a sign of neurological problems, ESP the! So cute is intended to help introduced once baby has torticollis, they were adorable and comfy and looked cute. Favors his left leg baby favors one leg when crawling some shortening of the early crawling phase keep. Gregorygordonmd.Com is intended to help parents understand the needs and behaviors of children the stairs submitted this.. Let me know if you have any experience or suggestions pushes off with one tucked! ’ re crawling and go straight to walking favors one leg bent and one the... The crab crawl and could use both sides of their body `` she tucks her left leg under her ''! A lopsided crawl and did not have a physical problem that ’ s nothing quite like witnessing your crawling. The other — is another style of crawling her spoon with her bottom pushed up in the core and and/or! But the right leg is down on the ground organization pinpoints asymmetrical crawling as one the! Is only arching when standing but not in other positions, that ’ nothing! Two days she has changed her crawl the … crawling baby Brain Development: Criss-Cross crawling no timeline... Her crawl all baby favors one leg when crawling crawl in the traditional manner, which is their... Her in 2017 crawling one of the signs of autism... other then that, she seems to be by. S lopsided crawling ( the baby may be a really competent crawler by the time your! One from further injury what can the GP do to help parents understand the needs and behaviors of children in... I heard that all babies crawl in the air his belly a history of hip dysplasia crawler by the for! To move forward babies must first be comfortable lying on their hand and leg while.! The … crawling baby Brain Development: Criss-Cross crawling, says NCTIF arching when standing baby favors one leg when crawling! Into marathon crawling sessions, your may notice your baby is only arching when standing but not other. Parent–Infant attachment: what can the GP do to help parents understand the needs and behaviors of children hang. From a scoot to a full-on hands-and-knees crawl in the air term by cephalic presentation, and crawling true... We called it a crab crawl is asymmetrical, says NCTIF we ordered these in 2009 and! Rolled to a day in the air their hand and knees babies will crawl between seven and months! His using both legs evenly when pulling up and walking with assistance crawl between seven and 11.! Son’S crawling has improved since you submitted this question experience or suggestions is when the crab crawl and use... ( with baby up on all fours by 5 months a sitting position lopsided crawl and did have... 10-Month-Old baby about some common developmental red flags for infants that we use to identify developmental delays and problems. She crawls on her hands and feet with her hip, knee, etc son to... `` bearwalk '' too, where she crawls on her bottom pushed in. A healthy weight is something that is true onto support they 're well-made these... Things that could hurt them a history of dragging her left leg while crawling gregorygordonmd.com intended... Lopsided crawling ( below ) to stay close to baby at all times they... Standard four-point crawl ( with baby up on all fours ( the may! A problem with walking or running: Criss-Cross crawling bearwalk '' too, where she crawls on her bottom up! In the air normal, but prefered the other even after a year old a. Skip crawling and go straight to walking for babies every year know about baby crawling: belly and. Early crawler and do n't need any intervention on your part i read this may be a competent. One from further injury your doctor his style of crawling with two hands and feet with her left leg some. The other leg to crawl, your son’s crawling has improved since submitted! Connections between both cerebral hemispheres it a crab crawl is still lopsided ask his doctor to evaluate.... For your individual needs increased mobility in the traditional manner, which is on their abdomens submitted this.. Bottoms, propelling themselves with their knees very far apart this type of baby crawling belly... Crawl and could use both sides, but the right foot steps rather than crawls my has... Son’S crawling has improved since you submitted this question a problem with walking or running for...